Milk is a healthy drink that is probably almost always available inside every family’s fridge in the US, am I right?
We are so familiar with milk. We can drink it as is, pour it into a bowl of cereal, or use it in baking.
If you love science, you might be wondering what kind of matter the milk is.
Is milk an element, compound, or mixture?
Milk is neither an element nor a compound. Milk is a mixture which consists of various compounds which consists of various elements. There are various milks in the world which means milk doesn’t have a definite ratio of composition so it’s definitely a mixture.
What is a mixture?
Why is milk categorized as a mixture?
In this article, we will talk about the classification of milk, including why milk is not a compound and why it is classified as mixture.
What Is Milk?
Milk is a kind of drink. It’s a white liquid that comes from mammals’ mammary glands (commonly from cows).
There are various types of milk based on its fat content.
- whole milk (contains 3.25% of fat)
- 2% milk or reduced fat milk (contains 2% of fat)
- 1% milk or low fat milk (contains 1% of fat)
- skim milk or non fat milk (contains 0% to 0.5% of fat)
What Is An Element?
An element is a matter that only consists of one single type of atom. It means that an element is a pure matter that cannot be broken down to produce other elements.
Some examples of elements are lead (Pb), tin (Sn), and gold (Au).
There are 118 elements in the periodic table. Each of them has atomic number and special feature.
What Is A Compound?
A compound is a substance that consists of two or more elements that bond chemically with a definite ratio of composition.
Since it has definite ratio of composition, the same kind of compound will have the same kind of molecule no matter where you find it in the world.
CO2 (carbon dioxide) is an example of a compound. No matter where you find it in the world, the molecule of carbon dioxide will always have one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms that combine chemically.
What Is A Mixture?
In this world, a matter can be classified according to their physical states into solid, gas, or liquid.
But it can also be classified according to their composition into element, compound, or mixture. Now you have learned about the element and compound.
But, what is a mixture?
In science, a mixture is a material that consists of two or more elements or compounds that combine together usually without forming a chemical bond. A mixture doesn’t need to follow a definite ratio of composition. It means that the same kind of mixture can have different qualities according to its composition ratio.
An example of a mixture is steel. Steel is made by combining iron and carbon. But the ratio of iron and carbon can be different between each steel. This makes different types of steel. For example, mild steel may contain very little amount of carbon (up to 0.25%) while high carbon steel can contain about 1.5% % of carbon.
Why Is Milk A Mixture?
Milk is a mixture as it contains various compounds which contains various types of elements. The composition of milk is not always the same between one milk to another so it has no definite ratio of composition. Hence, it’s considered a mixture.
Generally, milk in the US consists of water (H2O), lactose (C12H22O11), fat, protein, and minerals.
Each of those constituents is either compound, group of compounds or element. They combine together to form a liquid called milk.
The percentage of fat isn’t definite between one milk to another. Sometimes, the fat is reduced, or skimmed. So, the composition of milk is not definite.
Since milk consists of various compounds and elements and it has no definite ratio of composition, milk is classified as a mixture.
Is Milk Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?
Milk might seem homogeneous macroscopically. But it’s actually heterogeneous when you see it under a microscope.
Here comes the tricky part.
In science, a homogeneous mixture is a mixture in which constituents are distributed entirely so it’s the same throughout.
The heterogeneous mixture, on the contrary, is a mixture where constituents are not distributed evenly so you can see some physical separations in the mixture.
Milk is homogeneous to the naked eye because it looks very same throughout the sample.
But did you remember? In milk, there are water and fat. Water and fat cannot mix. They will always separate.
If you pour a cup of oil (fat) into a bowl of water, you can clearly see that they don’t mix. You can clearly see the separations because the oil appears as big droplets.
In milk, the content of the fat is so small and the fat comes as tiny droplets, making it’s hard to detect for bare eyes.
When you see a milk under the microscope, you can see the fat and the water are actually not combined.
Since the constituents of the mixture do not actually mix well, milk is considered heterogeneous.